Conceding and refuting are important language functions in English. Here are a few short definitions:
让步和反驳是英语中的重要语言功能。以下是一些简短的定义:

Concede: Admit that another person is right about something.
让步:承认另一个人是对的。

Refute: Prove that someone else is wrong about something.
反驳:证明别人在某些事情上是错的。

Often, speakers of English will concede a point, only to refute a larger issue:
通常,讲英语的人会先让步一下,然后会反驳一个更大的问题:

It's true that working can be tedious. However, without a job, you won't be able to pay the bills.
工作真的很无聊。但是,没有工作,你就无法支付账单。

While you might say that the weather has been really bad this winter, it's important to remember that we needed lots of snow in the mountains.
尽管你可能会说今年冬天的天气很糟糕,但重要的是要记住,我们在山上需要很多雪。

I agree with you that we need to improve our sales figures. On the other hand, I don't feel we should change our overall strategy at this time.
我同意你的看法,我们需要提高销售额。另一方面,我觉得我们现在不应该改变我们的总体战略。

It's common to concede and refute at work when discussing strategy or brainstorming. Conceding and refuting are also very common in all types of debates including political and social issues.
在讨论战略或头脑风暴时,在工作中让步和反驳是很常见的。在包括政治和社会问题在内的所有类型的辩论中,让步和反驳也是很常见的。

When trying to make your point, it's a good idea to first frame the argument. Next, concede a point if applicable. Finally, refute a larger issue.
当你想表达你的观点时,最好先提出论点。接下来,如果适用的话,让步一点。最后,反驳一个更大的问题。

Framing the Issue
制定问题框架

Begin by introducing a general belief that you would like to refute. You can use general statements, or speak about specific people that you would like to refute. Here are some formulas to help you frame the issue:
首先介绍一个你想反驳的普遍信念。你可以使用一般性的陈述,或者说一些你想反驳的人。这里有一些句式可以帮助您构建问题的框架:

Person or institution to be refuted + feel / think / believe / insist / that + opinion to be refuted
被反驳的人或机构++ feel / think / believe / insist / that+被拒绝的观点

Some people feel that there is not enough charity in the world.
有些人觉得世界上没有足够的慈善机构。

Peter insists that we haven’t invested enough in research and development.
彼得坚持说,我们在研究和开发方面投入不足。

The board of directors believes that students should take more standardized tests.
董事会认为学生应该参加更规范的考试。

Making the Concession:
做出让步:

Use the concession to show that you have understood the gist of your opponent’s argument. Using this form, you will show that while a specific point is true, the overall understanding is incorrect. You can begin with an independent clause using subordinators that show opposition:
用让步来表明你已经理解了对手论点的要点。使用此句式,您将显示尽管某个特定点是正确的,但总体理解是错误的。你可以从一个独立的从句开始,使用表示反对的下属:

While it’s true / sensible / evident / likely that + specific benefit of argument,
虽然这是真的/合理的/明显的/可能的+具体的利益的争论....

While it’s evident that our competition has outspent us on, ...
虽然很明显我们的争论已经超过了我们……

While it’s sensible to measure students’ aptitudes, ...
虽然衡量学生的能力是明智的,…

Although / Even though / Though it's true that + opinion,
尽管.....是事实+观点,

Although it's true that our strategy hasn't worked to date, ...
虽然我们的战略到目前为止还没有真的奏效,…

Even though it’s true that the country is currently struggling economically, ...
尽管这个国家目前正在经济上挣扎,这是事实,…

An alternate form is to first concede by stating that you agree or can see the advantage of something in a single sentence. Use concession verbs such as:
另一种形式是在一句话中首先承认你同意或能看到某件事的好处。使用让步动词,如:

I concede that / I agree that / I admit that
我认可/我同意/我承认....

Refuting the Point
反驳观点

Now it’s time to make your point. If you've used a subordinator (while, although, etc.), use your best argument to finish the sentence:
现在是时候表明你的观点了。如果你使用了从属连词(尽管如此,等等),用你最好的论点来完成句子:

it’s also true / sensible / evident that + refutation
这也是真实的/明智的/明显的+反驳论点

it’s more important / essential / vital that + refutation
更重要的是+反驳论点

the bigger issue / point is that + refutation
更大的问题/要点是+反驳论点

we must remember / take into consideration / conclude that + refutation
我们必须记住/考虑到/得出结论+反驳论点

… it’s also evident that financial resources will always be limited.
…很明显,财政资源总是有限的。

… the bigger point is that we do not have the resources to spend.
…更重要的是,我们没有足够的资源来消费。

… we must remember that standardized testing such as the TOEFL leads to rote learning.
…我们必须记住,像托福这样的标准化考试会导致死记硬背。

If you've made a concession in a single sentence, use a linking word or phrase such as however, nevertheless, on the contrary, or above all to state your refutation:
如果您在一句话中做出了让步,请使用一个连接词或短语,例如,然而,相反地,或者最重要的是,说明您的反驳:

However, we currently do not have that capability.
但是,我们目前没有这种能力。

Nevertheless, we've succeeded in attracting more customers to our stores.
尽管如此,我们还是成功地吸引了更多的顾客来我们的商店。

Above all, the people's will needs to be respected.
最重要的是,人民的意志需要得到尊重。

Making Your Point
表达你的观点

Once you’ve refuted a point, continue to provide evidence to further back up your point of view.
一旦你反驳了一个观点,继续为其提供证据,进一步回到你的观点。

It is clear / essential / of utmost importance that + (opinion)
很有必要+观点

I feel / believe / think that + (opinion)
我认为+观点

I believe that charity can lead to dependence.
我相信慈善会导致依赖。

I think that we need to focus more on our successful products rather than develop new, untested merchandise.
我认为我们需要更多地关注我们的成功产品,而不是开发新的、未经测试的产品。

It is clear that students are not expanding their minds through rote learning for tests.
很明显,学生们并没有通过死记硬背的考试来拓展他们的思维。

Complete Refutations
完全反驳

Let’s take a look a few concessions and refutations in their completed form:
让我们看一看他们填的表格中的一些让步和反驳:

Students feel that homework is an unnecessary strain on their limited time. While it's true that some teachers assign too much homework, we must remember the wisdom in the saying "practice makes perfect." It is essential that information we learn is repeated to fully become useful knowledge.
学生们觉得家庭作业对他们有限的时间来说是不必要的压力。虽然有些老师布置的作业太多是真的,但我们必须记住“熟能生巧”这句话中的智慧。重要的是,我们学习的信息要重复,才能充分使其成为有用的知识。

Some people insist that profit is the only viable motivation for a corporation. I concede that a company must profit to stay in business. However, the larger issue is that employee satisfaction leads to improved interactions with clients. It is clear that employees who feel they are compensated fairly will consistently give their best.
一些人坚持认为利润是企业唯一可行的动机。我承认,一家公司要想继续经营下去必须获利。然而,更大的问题是,员工满意度导致与客户的互动得到改善。很明显,那些认为自己得到了公平补偿的员工会始终如一地尽力而为。

More English Functions
更多的英语功能

Conceding and refuting are known as language functions. In other words, language which is used to achieve a specific purpose. You can learn more about a wide variety of language functions and how to use them in everyday English.
让步和反驳被称为语言功能?;谎灾?,用于达到特定目的的语言。你可以了解更多的语言功能,以及如何在日常英语中使用它们。